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Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.adaptive landscape: A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter).adaptation: Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment.In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene (one from each parent).

The eggs are soft and vulnerable to drying, therefore reproduction commonly occurs in water.The diameter of the aperture determines the intensity of light admitted. archeology: The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of physical remains, such as graves, tools, pottery, and other artifacts.The pupil of a human eye is a self-adjusting aperture. archetype: The original form or body plan from which a group of organisms develops.agnostic: A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable.algae: An umbrella term for various simple organisms that contain chlorophyll (and can therefore carry out photosynthesis) and live in aquatic habitats and in moist situations on land. Algae range from macroscopic seaweeds such as giant kelp, which frequently exceeds 30 m in length, to microscopic filamentous and single-celled forms such as Spirogyra and Chlorella. For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds.These all develop through an embryo that is enclosed within a membrane called an amnion.

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