Non validating childhood

Costs vary across countries depending on the choice of delivery mechanisms and level of investment in areas such as health worker training, health-care infrastructure and mechanisms for generating service demand in the community.

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In an effort to support the countries in greatest need, WHO’s Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) has identified 33 countries (Appendix A, available at: that together contribute 78% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age.Cost data were provided by countries in their local currencies and were converted to 2004 United States dollars (US$).When an input price was reported in US$ for a tradable good (such as medicines), we used the US$ deflation rate.Interventions were identified as cost drivers when the relative proportion of an intervention contributed to 10% or more of overall patient costs in the specific country.A programme cost category was identified as a cost driver if it fulfilled the following two criteria: (i) the cost category contributed to 10% or more of the overall programme cost estimated for the specific country, and (ii) the particular component accounted for at least 70% of the costs of that category.When respondents provided input prices in local currency units, we applied average annual inflation rates obtained from the International Monetary Fund.

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